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考研英语:搞定虚拟语气 阅读分直追30+

[ 浏览: 次 ] [ 更新时间:2015-06-29 13:34:30 ]

虚拟语气是考研英语阅读理解、完形填空和翻译中一个很常见的语法现象。尤其是在阅读理解中,推理题,这个决定学生能不能从40分的阅读中夺得30分以上的一个题型。而我们此处的虚拟语气是推理题经常出选项的地方。从1986年到现2014年,其出现的频率是很高的。同时,英语二中虚拟语气也是个考点。但是其形式多,很多考生在判断辨识和使用上有一定难度。虚拟语气的考点一般在考研中有四大类:if 引导的从句类;从句中(should)do 句型;特殊句型类以及单用句型类。之前我们学习了if 引导的从句这个第一类别。那下面跨考教育英语教研室肖方方老师就其他三个考点带领大家一起继续学习虚拟语气。

(二)从句中的(should)do 句型

(1)英语中有些表示要求,建议、提议、命令、意愿等的形容词、动词和名词,其后若跟随有主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句或同位语从句,从句中的动词要求要用虚拟语气形式,即动词原形或“should+动词原形”。

属于该类的常见形容词有:advisable, desirable, essential, imperative, insistent, keen , necessary, preferable, urgent, vital等。

例1 .If cities are to remain pleasant places to live in at all, however, it seems imperative, not only that communications in transport should be improved, but also that communication between human beings should be kept smooth and polite.(1989年阅读3)

例2. The board deemed it urgent that these files should be printed right away. (1993年单选1)

例3.I don’t think it advisable that he should be assigned to the job since he has no experience whatsoever. (1993年改错64)

例4.It’s essential that people be psychologically able to resist the impact brought about by the transition from planned economy to market economy. (1996年改错12)

常见的动词有advise, ask , beg , decide , demand, desire, determine,insist,intend,maintain,move,propose,order,recomm-end,request,require,resolve,suggest,urge等

例5. This year, it was proposed that system be changed: Horizon 2020, a new program to be enacted in 2014, would not have such a category. (2013年新题型)

例6.Rather than concluding that children make parents either happy or miserable, Senior suggests we need to redefine happiness: instead of thinking of it as something that can be measured by moment-to-moment joy, we should consider being happy as a past-tense condition.(2011年阅读4)

例7 It insists that economic co-ordination should involve all 27 members of the EU club, among whom there is a small majority for free-market liberalism and economic rigour; in the inner core alone, Germany fears, a small majority favour French interference.(2011年英语二阅读4)

常见的名词有advice, decision, demand, desire, insistence, instruction, order, preference , proposal, recommendation, request, requirement, resolution, suggestion 等。

例8. The suggestion that athletes should compete as individuals, or in non-national teams, might be too much to hope for.(1992年阅读3)

(2)由lest, for fear that, in case 引起的从句也多用“should+动词原形的形式表示虚拟语气。”

例9 They should be quick to respond to letters to the editor, lest animal rights misinformation go unchallenged and acquire a deceptive appearance of truth.(2003年阅读2)

例10 What has happened is that people cannot confess fully to their dreams, as easily and openly as once they could, lest they be thought pushing, acquisitive and vulgar.(2000年阅读5)

(三)特殊句型类

考研的文章中有时会出现由单词或短语印出来的从句,如果是现在的情况,要用一般过去时,如果是过去的情况,要用过去完成体。

(1)it is about/high time (that) “是…时间了”其要表达的含义是“早该”,也就是说是目前还没发生,所以用虚拟语气。

例11 If I were in movie, then it would be about time that I [C] buried my head in my hands for a cry.(2001年单选1)

(2) would rather/had rather 宁愿;wish希望;if only 要

是。。。就好了。if only 引导的句子经常被用来表示不可能或很难实现的愿望,动词用过去式,be动词用were。也可以表示对过去已经发生的事情表示“遗憾”,动词用过去完成式,其作用就相当于I wish 引导的句子。

(3) as if / though 好像,仿佛

在表示假设的句子中,动词用过去式表示现在,用过去完成式表示过去。

例12 Beethoven’s music tends to move from chaos to order as if order were an imperative of human existence.(2014年翻译)

(四)单句句型类

(1)should have done 本该做却没有做

例13 Now he is suing the casino, charging that it should have refused his patronage because it knew he was addicted. It did know he had a problem.(2006年新题型)

(2)should not have done 本不该做却做了

例14 Unhappy parents rarely are provoked to wonder if they shouldn’t have had kids, but unhappy childless folks are bothered with the message that children are the single most important thing in the world: obviously their misery must be a direct result of the gaping baby-size holes in their lives.(2011年阅读4)

那关于虚拟语气的讲解就到此结束。在此肖方方老师提醒各位在考研的任何阶段,此语法现象都要做到辨认和灵活使用。望同学们复习顺利。最后送同学们一句话Everything will be fine at the end ,if it isn’t well,it’s not the end.每件事都会在最后变得好好的,如果现在不够好,那是因为现在还没到最后阶段。加油!
 

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